Medical News Today: What to know about skin blemishes

There are many different types of skin blemish. Some examples include those below.

Acne

Acne is a skin condition that occurs as a result of the skin producing too much oil. Different factors can cause excess oil production, including:

There are several different types of acne, which vary in their appearance. Some examples include:

Blackheads

Blackheads are small, dark spots on the surface of the skin. They resemble trapped dirt but actually consist of oil that has become stuck inside the pore. When this oil reacts with air, it becomes black.

Whiteheads

Whiteheads are small, round blemishes that are white or skin-colored. They develop as a result of oil and dead skin cells blocking the pores.

Papules

Papules are small, hard, red bumps on the skin. These develop when excess oil, bacteria, and dead skin cells travel deeper into the skin, causing inflammation.

When lots of papules cluster together, this can give the skin a rough, sandpaper-like texture.

Pustules

Pustules are raised, red spots that contain yellow or white pus. They occur when oil, bacteria, and dead skin cells collect under the skin, causing infection.

Nodules

Nodules are large skin blemishes that develop when a pore becomes clogged. Oils mix with dead skin cells and bacteria that then become trapped deep in the skin. The excess oil and bacteria lead to infection and inflammation inside the skin.

This type of skin blemish can cause acne scarring.

Acne cysts

A break in the lining of a pore can cause oil and bacteria to spread to the surrounding skin. An acne cyst is a membrane that has formed around the infected area.

Cysts appear as large, swollen, red blemishes. They may be very painful to the touch.

Like nodules, cysts can cause permanent acne scarring.

Hyperpigmentation

Hyperpigmentation is a type of blemish that appears darker than other areas of skin. It is common and usually harmless.

Hyperpigmentation can occur as a result of genetic factors, sun damage, or acne scarring.

Freckles are a type of hyperpigmentation that a person can inherit the tendency to develop. They are small, flat spots that may be red, brown, tan, or black. They can appear anywhere on the body.

Sunspots or “age spots” are another type of hyperpigmentation. These small spots or patches can develop on areas of the skin that get a lot of sun exposure.

Acne scarring can also cause dark spots to remain on the skin once the acne has cleared.

Melasma

Melasma is a type of hyperpigmentation that can develop during pregnancy or when a person takes birth control pills.

The hormonal changes that take place lead to an increase in melanin. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its coloring. The overproduction of melanin can make the skin darker.

Ingrown hair

Sometimes, hairs can curl back on themselves or grow sideways into the skin, which can result in red, itchy bumps forming. Doctors refer to these skin blemishes as ingrown hairs.

Hair removal techniques, such as waxing, shaving, or plucking, can all cause ingrown hairs.

Birthmarks

Birthmarks are blemishes that appear on the skin of a newborn baby. They can appear either at birth or shortly afterward. Some birthmarks disappear over time, while others may be permanent.

Experts are still not sure what causes birthmarks to form. However, these skin blemishes can sometimes develop as a result of:

  • blood vessels not forming properly
  • skin pigment cells clumping together, creating moles or patches of darker skin
  • an overgrowth of skin that creates raised patches of thickened skin

A birthmark will look different than the skin surrounding it. These types of skin blemish can be any size and may vary greatly in appearance. They may be:

  • flat or raised
  • similar to a bruise or stain
  • any color, including pink, red, brown, or tan

Birthmarks are generally harmless, but some marks that appear on a baby’s skin can signal an underlying condition. It is best to have a dermatologist check any birthmarks just to be sure.

Some harmless birthmarks can also get larger quickly, which can be alarming. Talking with a dermatologist can help people know what to expect regarding birthmark growth.

Cold sores

Cold sores are painful, red, fluid-filled blisters that form on the lips or around the mouth. They occur as a result of infection with the herpes simplex virus.

Cold sores are highly contagious, so people should avoid intimate contact with others until the sores have healed to avoid passing the virus on.

Skin cancer

Some types of blemish can be a sign of skin cancer. Being aware of the signs to look out for can help people spot skin cancer early.

Some potential signs of skin cancer include:

  • a new mole or mark that grows quickly
  • a mole or mark that bleeds or itches
  • a blemish that changes in shape, size, or color
  • a mole that is asymmetrical or has rough, irregular edges
  • a mole that is larger than 6 millimeters

A person should see a doctor if they develop a new or unusual skin blemish that has any of the above characteristics.

Although many types of skin blemish do not require treatment, some people may wish to treat them for cosmetic reasons. The type of skin blemish will determine the treatment options.

Acne treatment

People may be able to treat acne blemishes with topical creams, such as benzoyl peroxide.

These products can help dry out the skin and get rid of acne-causing bacteria.

Washing the face twice daily with a cleanser containing benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid can help treat certain types of acne. In addition, medications called retinoids may help unclog the pores.

Acne treatments can take time to have a noticeable effect. People may need to wait 6–8 weeks for them to work.

For persistent acne, a dermatologist may suggest a topical or oral prescription medication. Some prescription treatments for acne and hyperpigmentation can cause side effects.

People should discuss any potential side effects with their dermatologist before starting treatment.

Some people may also find that certain dietary and lifestyle changes can help reduce stress levels and balance hormones.

Hyperpigmentation and melasma treatment

The following treatments may help reduce hyperpigmentation and melasma:

  • over-the-counter or prescription medicine containing hydroquinone, which works by lightening darker patches of skin
  • prescription cortisone or tretinoin cream
  • laser treatment

In some cases, melasma disappears after a woman has given birth or is no longer taking hormonal contraception.

Ingrown hair treatment

Some tips for preventing ingrown hairs include:

  • shaving only in the direction of hair growth
  • using a shaving gel
  • using only clean, sharp razors

For existing ingrown hairs, an exfoliating scrub can help release trapped hairs from under the skin.

Birthmark treatment

If people want to treat a birthmark, they may consider the following options:

  • laser therapy
  • medications, such as propranolol, timolol, or corticosteroids, which can shrink certain birthmarks
  • surgery to remove a birthmark that may be harmful

People may also use makeup to cover any blemishes or discolored skin that they wish to disguise.

Cold sore treatment

Cold sores tend to clear up on their own within 2 weeks. A dermatologist may also prescribe an oral or topical antiviral medicine to treat cold sores.

Skin cancer treatment

Skin cancer is very treatable if a person begins treatment in the early stages of the disease. The treatment that a person receives will depend on the type of skin cancer. Some possible treatment options include:

  • surgical removal of cancerous cells
  • topical medication to kill cancerous cells
  • radiation therapy

Medical News Today: 7 causes of anal bumps

A variety of factors can cause one or more bumps to form on the anus.

The anus is the endpoint of the gastrointestinal, or GI, tract. It is where stool exits the body.

A person may wish to better understand their symptoms by touching the anus and surrounding area. It is crucial to wash the hands before and after doing so to prevent the spread of bacteria.

Pictures

Anal fissures are small cuts or tears that occur in or on the anus.

They may result from passing hard stool, which can tear the delicate skin of the anus.

When a fissure starts to heal, it can form a skin tag that may feel like a lump.

An anal fissure may cause:

  • bleeding, often after passing hard stool
  • a burning or tearing sensation during a bowel movement
  • pain, which may last for several days after passing hard stool

Treatment

If an anal fissure is not showing signs of healing, a doctor might recommend Botox injections or a simple surgical procedure called a sphincterotomy.

Home treatment

To treat an anal fissure at home, a person can:

  • eat a high-fiber diet
  • use temporary laxatives
  • use diltiazem ointment

Sitting in a shallow tub of lukewarm water can also help ease any discomfort. This is called taking a sitz bath.

Learn more about sitz baths here.

Hemorrhoids are enlargements of anal tissue. They result from swollen veins in the rectum and anus, and they may be internal or external.

Hemorrhoids are very common — they affect up to 75% of people in the United States at some point in their lives, according to an article in the World Journal of Gastroenterology.

Symptoms of hemorrhoids include:

  • painless rectal bleeding
  • itching in the anal region
  • pain or discomfort in the area, especially during and after bowel movements
  • swelling around the anus that may form a lump

Pregnant women and older adults have a higher risk of developing hemorrhoids.

Treatment

If hemorrhoids are severe, a doctor may recommend surgical removal. However, a person can usually treat smaller or less serious hemorrhoids at home.

Home treatment

This typically involves:

  • using a hemorrhoid cream, such as one that contains phenylephrine
  • taking over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen
  • taking sitz baths

When treating hemorrhoids at home:

  • eat a high-fiber diet
  • drink plenty of water
  • avoid rubbing the area after bowel movements
  • avoid straining
  • avoid using perfumed soaps and other products

Other nonsurgical options

A doctor may remove internal hemorrhoids by:

  • rubber band ligation, a minimally invasive procedure that stops the supply of blood to the hemorrhoid
  • coagulation therapy, which involves using infrared light to stop the blood supply

Anal skin tags are collections of excess skin around the anus. A tag may feel like a small lump or buildup of tissue.

Anal skin tags can result from hemorrhoids or healing anal fissures.

They typically do not cause symptoms, but rubbing the tags excessively can cause discomfort or mild bleeding, and larger tags can cause other symptoms.

Treatment

Before treatment for anal skin tags can begin, a doctor must diagnose the underlying cause. This may involve surgically removing a tag.

Pimples can form on the anus — typically when one or more pores become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. A clogged pore may fill with pus, resulting in a pimple.

An anal pimple may feel like a soft, fluid-filled bump. Irritation can cause these pimples to become sore or otherwise uncomfortable.

Do not pop these pimples, as doing so can result in infection.

Treatment

To treat or prevent anal pimples:

  • keep the area dry and clean
  • refrain from shaving or waxing the area
  • eat a healthful diet

Anal warts are growths of tissue that result from infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Anal warts can be small — measuring 5 mm or less — but they can grow, and some spread over the anal opening. They are typically skin colored.

Some symptoms of anal warts include:

  • bleeding
  • a feeling of fullness or discomfort in the anal area
  • itching
  • mucous discharge

Treatment

Treatment of anal warts depends on their size and number.

A person typically uses topical medications, such as those that contain podophyllin and bichloracetic acid.

Alternately, a doctor may recommend cryotherapy, which involves freezing off the warts.

HPV causes the majority of anal cancer cases and nearly all cases of cervical cancer. It is crucial to receive treatment for anal warts.

It is also worth remembering that 90% of HPV infections clear up within 2 years.

Anyone who thinks that they may have anal warts should consult a doctor.

Molluscum contagiosum is a viral illness that causes lesions, called papules, to form on the skin.

The papules may be clear, yellow, flesh colored, red, or pink. They are firm and typically smooth and domed.

When molluscum contagiosum is transmitted through sex, these lesions commonly develop on the lower stomach, upper thighs, anus, and genital region.

A person may have only a few papules or many that vary in size.

Treatment

Molluscum contagiosum sometimes goes away without treatment, but this can take several months.

To treat molluscum contagiosum, a doctor may:

  • recommend a topical ointment, many of which contain podophyllotoxin, salicylic acid, or potassium hydroxide
  • remove papules with lasers or by freezing them off

Anal cancer involves cancerous cells being present in the anus. The cells may collect to form a mass, or lump, though this does not always happen.

Some other indications of anal cancer include:

  • changes in bowel movements, such as passing very narrow stool
  • discharge from the anal area that may be mucous
  • pain in the area
  • rectal bleeding
  • rectal itching
  • swollen lymph nodes in the groin

A person with any of these symptoms should talk to a doctor. They may refer the person to a gastrointestinal specialist who can perform an examination and recommend further testing.

Treatment

Treatment of anal cancer can involve:

A person should see a doctor if they notice:

  • unexplained changes in bowel movements
  • pain or frequent discomfort in the rectal area, particularly with bowel movements
  • pus-like discharge from an anal lump
  • symptoms of a systemic infection, such as a fever, swelling, or redness
  • increasing amounts of blood on toilet paper

A doctor will begin by listening to a person’s symptoms, and they will then perform a visual and physical examination of the anal opening.

The doctor may be able to identify the issue based on visual inspection alone. Or, they may need a small tissue sample for analysis.

The doctor may recommend further examination, such as a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Both involve inserting a thin, lighted tube with a camera into the anal canal to look for any abnormalities.

A colonoscopy can help determine whether any abnormalities extend throughout the gastrointestinal tract.

Various issues can cause a bump to form in, on, or around the anus. Most of these causes are treatable, and some are more serious than others. A person should not ignore persistent anal bleeding or discomfort.

If a person experiences changes in bowel movements, anal bleeding, or severe pain, they should see a doctor.

Medical News Today: What to do if bleach gets on the skin

Bleach is a common household product that many people use for cleaning and disinfecting. It can kill most types of viruses, bacteria, molds, mildew, and algae. Bleach also whitens or lightens the color of certain materials.

Household bleach tends to contain 3–8% sodium hypochlorite. It is not usually toxic to the skin itself, but it can irritate the skin, eyes, and other parts of the body. It can be more harmful if mixed with other household chemicals, such as toilet cleaner, or if someone inhales it.

This article looks at what to do if bleach comes into direct contact with the skin or eyes. It will also discuss when to see a doctor and provide tips on how to use bleach safely.

a woman washing her hands with soap because she has bleach on her skinShare on PinterestIf a person gets bleach on their skin, they can try washing the area with mild soap and water.

Household bleach is corrosive but not usually dangerous if a person uses it according to the label.

The effects of exposure to bleach will vary depending on the part of the body it affects, the concentration of the bleach, the duration of the exposure, and the amount.

Exposure to bleach can affect these body areas in the following ways:

  • Eyes: Exposure to bleach can make the eyes look red and feel irritated. The affected eye may tear up, and the person may experience blurry vision.
  • Mouth and throat: The mouth and throat may feel irritated, but the bleach will not usually cause any severe damage.
  • Skin: The skin may be irritated and look red.
  • Stomach and gastrointestinal (GI) tract: It is unusual for bleach to damage the stomach or GI tract because they are very resilient to such substances.
  • Lungs: Breathing in bleach fumes can irritate the lungs. For example, a person may experience bronchospasm. Bronchospasm causes the chest to feel tight and makes it hard for the person to catch their breath.

Exposure to bleach can be dangerous or even fatal if it mixes with other household chemicals. Bleach manufactured in countries outside of the United States may be even more dangerous due to the increased concentration.

For example, when combined with ammonia, bleach will create a toxic gas called chloramine. People can inhale the gas or absorb it through the skin. High levels of exposure to chloramine gas can be fatal.

Exposure to chloramine gas can cause many symptoms, including:

In most cases, diluting the bleach with water will be enough to ease the skin irritation it causes. However, if someone gets bleach in their eyes or lungs, they should seek immediate medical attention. If a person ingests bleach, they should call Poison Control on 1-800-222-1222 immediately.

First aid advice for bleach exposure, depending on the area of the body it affects, is as follows:

  • Eyes: Flush the eyes with tap water. Then, see a doctor immediately.
  • Skin: Wash the exposed skin with mild soap and water.
  • Mouth or throat: If a person has swallowed a lot of bleach or an unknown amount, they should call Poison Control. They should also drink plenty of water. Drinking milk may ease the irritation. However, people should never force themselves to vomit, as it will cause more damage.
  • Lungs: Anyone who has inhaled bleach and is having trouble breathing should see a doctor, especially if they have asthma.

Anyone who gets bleach in their eyes should, after flushing the area with tap water, seek medical attention straight away.

People with asthma who inhale bleach should speak to a doctor straight away, especially if they start to experience any breathing difficulties.

Getting bleach on the skin is not usually dangerous when it is only for a short duration. However, it is important to speak to a doctor if the irritation does not pass within a few days or becomes severe.

When someone mixes bleach with other household chemicals, especially those that contain ammonia or acid, exposure can be very harmful. If someone has exposure to chloramine gas, for example, they should seek medical attention right away.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) say that it is critical to read and follow the safety instructions on any household cleaning product to avoid accidental exposure.

The most important things to remember when using bleach are as follows:

  • Never mix bleach with ammonia or any other cleaner.
  • Always wear rubber gloves to protect the skin on the hands.
  • Wear goggles or another form of eye protection.
  • Do not breathe in product fumes.
  • Keep the windows and doors open to ventilate the area.
  • Store it away from children.

The environmental protection organization Beyond Toxics warn of the environmental impact of bleach. They state that the bleach manufacturing process produces a highly toxic chemical called dioxin.

In large quantities, dioxin may:

  • lead to reproductive and developmental issues
  • damage the immune system
  • interfere with hormones
  • give rise to cancer

Discarded bleach may also mix with ammonia- or acid-based products in sewers and create dangerous chloramine gas.

Some alternatives to bleach for cleaning and whitening materials include:

  • hydrogen peroxide
  • lemon juice
  • washing soda or borax
  • vinegar

Household bleach is not usually toxic, though exposure can cause irritation.

If someone gets bleach on their skin, they should clean the affected area with soap and water.

If bleach gets into the eyes, the person should first flush the eyes with water and then seek medical attention.

When mixed with other chemicals in household cleaning products, bleach can produce a toxic gas called chloramine. Chloramine gas can be hazardous and even fatal. Anyone who has exposure to chloramine should therefore speak to a doctor.

Medical News Today: Differentiating ingrown hairs and herpes

Herpes and ingrown hairs are both common and have similar symptoms, so how can people differentiate between them?

More than half of adults in the United States have oral herpes, and 1 in 8 people between the ages of 14 and 49 years have genital herpes.

As many people shave the area around their genitals and other parts of the body that herpes may affect, it can be difficult to tell the difference between herpes and ingrown hair.

In this article, we examine the causes, symptoms, and treatment of both herpes and ingrown hair and explain how to tell them apart.

Typically, hair grows up and out of the hair follicle. Sometimes, though, the hair curls into the follicle, which causes it to grow under the skin. This downward growth can irritate the skin and cause inflammation that leads to the formation of red and painful blisters called pseudofolliculitis barbae.

Although anyone can develop ingrown hairs, they are more common in people who remove their hair, especially those who shave it.

In some people, ingrown hairs become so infected that they cause intense pain and even scarring. Sometimes, bacteria from other areas of the body get into ingrown hairs, causing painful infections that can cause fever and other signs of illness.

A person can usually prevent ingrown hairs by not removing body hair. Alternatively, the following hair removal practices may help reduce the risk of ingrown hairs:

  • exfoliating before hair removal
  • pulling the skin taut and shaving only in one direction
  • using a clean, sharp razor

Over-the-counter lotions may also reduce shaving-related irritation.

For more severe cases, a doctor may recommend retinoid cream to help the rash clear faster and steroids to relieve inflammation. When ingrown hairs become severely infected, a person might need oral antibiotics or an antibiotic cream.

Herpes is a common virus that a person gets through contact with herpes sores, which can occur if they kiss someone with oral herpes or have sex with someone with genital herpes.

The herpes virus lives in the body forever and occasionally reactivates, causing painful blisters that tend to break open and ooze.

While doctors often differentiate between oral herpes (HSV-1) and genital herpes (HSV-2), it is possible to spread oral herpes to the genitals, primarily through oral sex with an infected person who is having an outbreak.

For most people, the symptoms of herpes are mild, and after the first outbreak, subsequent outbreaks are less severe. However, in people with weakened immune systems and certain chronic illnesses, herpes may be more dangerous.

A pregnant woman may also be at risk of transmitting an active infection to the baby during vaginal delivery, so it is important for anyone who thinks that they might have herpes to get a proper diagnosis.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there is no cure for herpes. However, antiviral treatment can decrease the severity and frequency of outbreaks. It may also reduce the likelihood of a person spreading the virus to others.

Both herpes and ingrown hairs can cause painful red blisters, itching, and skin irritation.

If skin irritation is due to herpes, a person may experience:

  • sores that only appear on one side of the genitals
  • blisters that last 2–4 weeks
  • ulcers that appear 2–12 days after exposure
  • fever or flu-like symptoms
  • pain and other symptoms that occur before herpes blisters appear

It is more likely that an ingrown hair is responsible for a rash developing if a person has:

  • irritation that appears within 1–2 days of shaving or affects an area that has had exposure to a lot of friction
  • a visible hair growing just under the surface of the skin
  • risk factors for ingrown hairs, such as curly or tightly coiled hair

Some other types of skin rashes and blisters include:

  • Atopic dermatitis. This common type of eczema causes the skin to become itchy and inflamed. A person might notice red, itchy spots after using a new lotion, detergent, or shampoo.
  • A life threatening allergic reaction. A sudden rash that appears out of nowhere, spreads rapidly, or covers the entire body could indicate a severe allergic reaction. The person should go to the emergency room if they have other symptoms, especially if these include difficulty breathing.
  • Eczema. Other types of this chronic skin condition cause dry, flaky patches. Sometimes, these can resemble tiny blisters.
  • Cellulitis. Cellulitis is a severe bacterial infection in the deeper layers of the skin. A person with severely infected razor burn or ingrown hairs can get cellulitis. The affected skin is usually warm and red, and it may feel swollen. Cellulitis can spread quickly and may even become life threatening without prompt treatment.

A person should see a doctor if they have:

  • a first outbreak of herpes in the genitals
  • severe symptoms of a genital herpes outbreak, such as open sores around the genitals, anus, or thighs
  • symptoms of an ingrown hair that are very severe or do not go away on their own within a few days
  • a fever alongside a rash
  • a rash that is spreading rapidly
  • a rash and also have HIV or uncontrolled diabetes or are taking drugs that weaken the immune system

Parents or caregivers should take a baby or child who develops a rash to see a healthcare professional immediately. A pregnant woman who has a herpes outbreak close to her due date should also seek immediate medical care.

It is easy to panic about a sudden rash, especially when it is painful or itchy.

However, there is no reason to try to self-diagnose the issue. A doctor can quickly tell the difference between herpes and ingrown hairs and can recommend treatments that help with either.

Medical News Today: How to remove dead skin from the face

The skin naturally renews itself every 30 days or so. This process happens when the outer layer of the skin, or epidermis, sheds dead cells and replaces them with new ones.

Dead skin cells shed through normal daily activities, such as pulling clothes on and off. A person is unaware when old skin cells fall off throughout the day.

Exfoliation is when a person gets rid of these dead skin cells from the top layer of skin more quickly. However, people must take great care when using an exfoliant to do this, as these products can easily damage or irritate the skin.

In this article, we look at the different ways to exfoliate the skin on the face, taking skin type into consideration. We also look at what to avoid as the skin is more delicate on the face than on some other areas of the body.

If someone wishes to exfoliate their face, there are a number of steps they should take:

  • Use gentle methods specifically for the face.
  • Avoid the delicate skin around the eyes and on the lips.
  • Make sure that the face is always clean before exfoliating.
  • Exfoliate the skin either manually or chemically.

Manual exfoliation

Manual exfoliation involves using a tool or scrub to remove dead skin cells from the face physically.

Chemical exfoliation

Chemical exfoliation involves using a mild acid to dissolve dead skin cells.

Most products marketed for use on the face contain low levels of chemical exfoliants, so they are safe for use by the majority of people.

Chemical exfoliants may not be suitable for those with sensitive or dry skin, as they can cause dryness or irritation.

For any chemical exfoliation, building up use gradually can help prevent skin irritation.

People should not use chemical exfoliants more than once per week initially. A dermatologist can advise on use and choosing the right product.

The most common types of chemical exfoliants are:

  • alpha hydroxy acid (AHA)
  • beta hydroxy acid (BHA)
  • retinol

It is advisable not to use AHAs, BHAs, and retinol together as they will be too harsh on the skin.

Below, we list the various exfoliants that may be options.

Manual

1. Washcloth

Using a washcloth is a good option for those with more sensitive skin.

Take an ordinary washcloth and moisten with warm water, then use this to rub the skin gently in small circles.

Cleansing the face before exfoliating may also be beneficial as this opens up the skin’s pores.

2. Natural sponge

A natural sponge can work well to get rid of dead skin cells on the face.

Wet and wring out the sponge, then use small circular movements to exfoliate the face.

Try not to put too much pressure on the skin, as this can cause irritation. Light strokes should easily get rid of dead skin cells, as they are no longer firmly attached to the surface.

3. Face scrub

Exfoliating scrubs are a popular way to get rid of dead skin cells from the face. However, they can damage the skin as the ingredients may cause micro tears or irritation.

Avoid products that contain hard bits that do not dissolve, such as nutshell.

Scrubs that manufacturers have made from salt or sugar dissolve easily and are gentle on the skin. However, people should still only use them with caution and no more than once per week. They are generally not suitable for people with sensitive or dry skin.

As an alternative to buying commercial face scrubs, a person may want to make their own at home, such as a sugar or oatmeal scrub. Again, they should only apply these to the face once a week.

Chemical

4. AHAs

AHAs work by dissolving the top layer of skin to reveal new skin cells underneath.

Use AHAs to make pores appear smaller or to lessen the appearance of fine lines.

Glycolic acid is the most common AHA.

5. BHAs

BHAs penetrate the pores to unclog them and are more suited to oily and combination skin types.

Salicylic acid is the most common BHA, and medical professionals use these to treat acne.

6. Retinol

Retinol is a form of vitamin A that people use for skin care. It is a powerful chemical exfoliant that a person can apply to treat acne.

Retinol can cause inflammation, so those with eczema, psoriasis, or rosacea may wish to avoid using it.

Below, we list what to avoid when exfoliating and tips to prevent damage to the skin.

  • Take care if using products that already contain benzoyl peroxide or retinol, as the American Academy of Dermatology suggest. Exfoliating on top of using these products can cause skin problems.
  • Avoid buying products that manufacturers have designed for use on other areas of the body, as they are too harsh for the delicate skin on the face. Choose a product that is specifically for use on the face.
  • Avoid exfoliating damaged or sunburnt skin or if there is an existing skin condition. Testing an exfoliant on a small patch of skin can help check for irritation.
  • Moisturize after exfoliating and use a high factor sunscreen to protect the skin. All exfoliation increases sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light.
  • Exfoliate before shaving or using other methods of hair removal. This helps to prevent dead skin cells from clogging pores that may become more open during shaving.
  • Avoid exfoliating on the morning of an important event, or even the night before. Removing dead skin from the face may cause some redness or irritation.

It is important to understand a person’s skin type to find the best way of removing and exfoliating dead skin from the face.

The main skin types are:

  • normal
  • dry
  • oily
  • combination
  • sensitive

A person can determine their skin type at home by washing their face with water, then gently patting it dry. After 1 hour, a tissue should be pressed to the chin, nose, forehead, and cheeks in turn. By looking for traces of oil on the tissue, a person should be able to work out their skin type, as follows:

  • Normal skin: No oil on the tissue, and no evidence of dryness.
  • Dry skin: No oil on the tissue, and the skin feels tight or looks flaky.
  • Oily skin: Oil on the tissue, and skin looks shiny.
  • Combination skin: Cheeks are normal or dry; oil on the tissue from nose, forehead, or chin.
  • Sensitive skin: Skin feels itchy and looks red, or dry.

A range of exfoliants is available, and there are many simple recipes for making a scrub at home. Use exfoliants with care, as they can damage sensitive skin.

Overuse of exfoliants or the use of products that are too harsh can be irritating even to skin that is not sensitive.

Gently exfoliating once a week with the correct type of exfoliant for a person’s skin type can help make the complexion appear clearer. It may also help to treat or prevent breakouts.

Medical News Today: Removing the core of a boil: What to know

A boil is a large, red, painful lump on the skin. It is a type of skin infection that develops around a hair follicle or oil gland. These infections occur when bacteria become trapped beneath the skin.

Over time, a boil will develop a collection of pus in its center. This is known as the core of the boil. Do not attempt to remove the core at home as doing so can cause the infection to worsen or spread to other areas.

Boils can go away on their own without medical intervention. In some cases, home treatments can help alleviate symptoms and encourage healing. However, if the boil does not clear up naturally, a person should see their doctor.

Keep reading for more information on safe ways to alleviate boil symptoms at home and when to see a doctor.

Medical professionals, such as doctors and dermatologists, are the only people who can safely remove the core of a boil.

Removing the core of a boil is an outpatient procedure that requires a local anesthetic. Once the boil and surrounding area are numb, the doctor will cut a small incision in the boil. The incision allows some of the pus to drain out.

A doctor may then insert gauze into the incision to help drain any additional pus.

A person can return home the same day of the procedure. A doctor may prescribe topical or oral antibiotics to help prevent the infection from spreading.

A person should never attempt to remove the core of a boil at home. Squeezing or bursting a boil creates an open wound on the skin. This allows bacteria from the boil to enter the bloodstream. Once inside the bloodstream, the bacteria can spread to other parts of the body.

Squeezing or bursting a boil also increases the risk of scarring. Some of the bacteria in boils may spread to other people.

In most cases, a boil will go away on its own within a few weeks. During this time, a person can try home remedies, such as warm compresses to help alleviate pain and swelling.

A boil will typically heal on its own within a few weeks. The American Academy of Dermatology state that a person should see a doctor if they experience one or more of the following symptoms:

  • swelling or worsening pain after several days
  • development of an additional boil or stye
  • fever
  • vision problems

A person may also want to visit their doctor if they have multiple or recurrent boils. This can be a sign of other underlying health issues, such as a weakened immune system.

The following home care options may help alleviate boil symptoms or prevent the infection from spreading to other parts of your body or other people:

  • taking ibuprofen to help reduce pain and swelling
  • holding a warm, wet compress against the boil for 10–15 minutes three to four times each day until the pus starts to drain
  • keeping the boil and its surrounding area clean
  • avoiding touching the boil
  • keeping a burst boil covered
  • washing the hands and the area of the boil well

It can take anywhere from 2–21 days for a boil to burst and drain on its own. However, if a boil becomes bigger, does not go away, or is accompanied by fever, increasing pain, or other symptoms, a person should see their doctor.

Following treatment, a boil should drain and heal fully. The person can expect a full recovery.

Boils are bacterial skin infections that cause red, pus-filled bumps to form around hair follicles or oil glands.

Home treatments can help to alleviate symptoms and prevent the spread of infection. Treatment generally entails keeping the area clean, and applying warm compresses to encourage pus to drain from the core.

A person should never try to squeeze or burst a boil, as this can cause the infection to spread to other areas of the body. It may also result in scarring.

If a boil is particularly big, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms, a person should see their doctor. In some cases, a doctor may carry out a procedure to drain the boil. This is an outpatient procedure requiring the use of local anesthetic.